In this talk we present the changing objectives of the electric energy systems as complex dynamical systems. We briefly provide the basic landscape in the industry first. We take a broader look at the objectives of deploying cyber into these physical systems in light of viewing them as general socio-ecological systems (SES). We highlight that in the approach taken by late Elinor Ostrom on how one can assess sustainability of a complex SES, key metric concerns interactions between different system members. Motivated by her work, we discuss modeling of dynamical interactions within a physical electric power system. We highlight that existence of such physical interaction variables can be proven from the most general conservation laws between any component and the rest of the system. This becomes the basis for proposing a transformed state space for general modeling of electric energy systems; the lowest component level is modeled in terms of technology-specific physical variables, and local control design is done so that the interaction variable dynamics with the rest of the system is as specified. The higher-level model which captures dynamics of the interactions within an interconnected system and does not have to know the details about the internal variables of individual (groups of) component(s). Once this is understood it becomes straightforward to define what must be exchanged in electricity markets, and one can interpret distributed bidding and market clearing using this higher level model only. In this sense electricity markets could and should become technology agnostic. Similarly, it becomes possible to design protocols/standards for cyber design to enable robust/resilient system operation over broad ranges of operating conditions and equipment status. In closing, our Smart Grid in a Room Simulator (SGRS) under development at CMU in collaboration with NIST is fundamentally based on this multi-layered modeling. As such it sets the basis for simulating electricity markets, their effects on physical system response. We have used it now over several years for demonstrating novel control concepts introduced by several doctoral students at CMU.
Dr. Marija Ilić holds a joint appointment at Carnegie Mellon as Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering and Engineering & Public Policy, where she has been a tenured faculty member since October 2002. Her principal fields of interest include electric power systems modeling; design of monitoring, control, and pricing algorithms for electric power systems; normal and emergency control of electric power systems; control of large scale dynamic systems; nonlinear network and systems theory; modeling and control of economic and technical interactions in dynamical systems with applications to competitive energy systems. Dr. Ilić received her M.Sc. and D.Sc. degrees in Systems Science and Mathematics from Washington University in St. Louis and earned her MEE and Dip. Ing. at the University of Belgrade. She is an IEEE Fellow and an IEEE distinguished lecturer, as well as a recipient of the First Presidential Young Investigator Award for Power Systems. In addition to her academic work, Dr. Ilić is a consultant for the electric power industry and the founder of New Electricity Transmission Software Solution, Inc. (NETSS, Inc.). From September 1999 until March 2001, Dr. Ilić was a Program Director for Control, Networks and Computational Intelligence at the National Science Foundation. Prior to her arrival at Carnegie Mellon, Dr. Ilić held the positions of Visiting Associate Professor and Senior Research Scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 1986 to 1989, she was a tenured faculty member at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where she taught since 1984. She has also taught at Cornell and Drexel. She has worked as a visiting researcher at General Electric and as a principal research engineer in Belgrade. Dr. Ilić has co-authored several books on the subject of large-scale electric power systems: Ilić and Zaborsky, Dynamics and Control of Large Electric Power Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000; Ilić, Galiana, and Fink (eds.), Power Systems Restructuring: Engineering and Economics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2nd printing, 2000; Allen and Ilić, Price-Based Commitment Decisions in the Electricity Markets, Springer-Verlag London Limited, 1999; and Ilić and Liu, Hierarchical Power Systems Control: Its Value in a Changing Industry, Springer-Verlag London Limited, 1996. Dr. Ilić has also served as an associate editor for a multi-volume Encyclopedia of Energy, Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.), Elsevier Inc., 2004 and a co-editer of Control and Optimization Methods in Smart Grids (Springer, 2011). Her most recent book, Engineering IT-Enabled Sustainable Electricity Services: The Tale of Two Low-Cost Green Azores Islands, appeared from Springer in August 2013. Recently, Professor Ilić developed and taught a course in Electric Energy Processing and co-developed/co-taught a course entitled, “Electric Power Systems Reading Seminar.” (See http://www.ece.cmu.edu/~nsf-education .) She is the PI of a major NSF ITR award (see http://www.ece.cmu.edu/~nsf-itr ) and the co-PI of an interdisciplinary DOE grant entitled, “Bundling Energy Systems of the Future.” She has co-organized an annual multidisciplinary Electricity Industry conference series at Carnegie Mellon (ECE, EPP, and Tepper) with participants from academia, government, and industry; the conference is looking forward to its ninth year in 2013 (see http://www.ece.cmu.edu/~electricityconference ).Dr. Ilić is the Director of the Electric Energy Systems Group at Carnegie Mellon (http://www.eesg.ece.cmu.edu ), Director of the SRC ERI/Smart Grid Research Center (http://www.src.org/program/eri/sgrc/),and the Honorary Chaired Professor for control of Future Electricity Network Operations at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. Professor Ilic received from the Carnegie Institute of Technology at Carnegie Mellon University the Phillip L. Dowd Fellowship Teaching Award in 2010 and the Steven J. Fenves Award for Systems Research in 2012.
Rodrigo Seromenho Miragaia Rodrigues